Diplomats on the market: How an ambassadorship was purchased and misplaced |

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His picture – the bespoke fits, silk ties and handmade footwear – was every little thing to Ali Reza Monfared.

So, when he fell from his trademark sartorial splendour to the light-blue uniform of Iran’s infamous Evin Jail, the distinction was harsh.

His neatly combed hair has additionally greyed significantly since Iranian Worldwide Police arrested him at a Caribbean resort in 2017.

In November 2019, Monfared was convicted of embezzling tens of millions of {dollars} from his nation, simply one of many strands in a world net of economic, diplomatic and private fraud that noticed him sentenced to 20 years in jail and a $1.3bn superb.

It might have been worse. In 2016, Monfared’s billionaire enterprise accomplice, Babak Zanjani, was sentenced to demise for his position within the siphoning off of $2.8bn from Iranian oil revenues.

If you wish to be taught extra concerning the authorized commerce of passports and a number of the pitfalls, test our podcast Al Jazeera Investigates: Diplomats for Sale.

Monfared’s pure charisma and hustle had taken him far. From humble beginnings within the residence ornament enterprise, he had rocketed to success: banker, worldwide oil dealer and, lastly, “His Excellency Dato Ali Reza Monfared”, Dominica’s ambassador to Malaysia.

In 2015, Monfared had secured a Dominican diplomatic passport and, with it, what he treasured most of all – diplomatic immunity.

A charismatic outsider

In 2012, Monfared arrived on Labuan, a small Malaysian island off the coast of Borneo, as a charismatic outsider with massive ambitions.

“You’d virtually fall in love with him as a result of he’s such a candy talker. Ali can persuade anyone into doing something,” stated Manoj Bhullar, the proprietor of a marine logistics firm on Labuan. He refers to Monfared as “Ali” as a result of they had been as soon as greatest buddies.

After they met in 2012, Monfared claimed to be an agent of the Iranian authorities, working, below the route of Babak Zanjani, to maneuver oil from Iran.

As Iran was below sanctions, “that they had issues”, Bhullar defined.

When Bhullar proposed an answer to these issues, it marked the start of a relationship that may change his life.

Diplomats for Sale longread 

The Bhullars

I first heard about Monfared in the summertime of 2018. I used to be within the sale of diplomatic passports within the Caribbean and had began gathering sources by way of a contact linked to Bhullar’s spouse, Kiran. She and her husband had been swindled by Monfared and Kiran would textual content me lengthy threads about their quest for justice.

Her story was compelling, so I requested to satisfy in particular person. However whereas it was clear she wished to talk, she appeared reluctant to satisfy.

She ultimately agreed, however made no guarantees. So, with correspondent Deborah Davies and cameraman Manny Panaretos, I travelled to Kuala Lumpur and not using a assure of an interview.

We met the Bhullars for lunch at a shopping center.

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“You draw up a psychological image of the individuals you are going to meet,” Davies stated afterwards. “[Then] in walks this actually fashionable, charismatic, fabulous-looking couple.” It was simple to see how the Bhullars would have slot in with Monfared’s glamorous life-style.

Bhullar later instructed me that he additionally had a psychological image of how the lunch would play out: He would sit down, shake our palms, politely decline to speak after which stroll out.

However that was not what occurred.

As an alternative, the couple unburdened years of pent-up frustration and remorse over their dealings with Monfared.

As our assembly entered its third hour, the dialog turned to Labuan. I instructed them I had usually heard it described because the Cayman Islands of Asia, due to its versatile monetary guidelines and lots of shell firms. I had wished to go to however had been instructed that, as a reporter, it might be unimaginable.

The Bhullars dismissed my issues and invited us there. “It is my island,” joked Bhullar. And from the second we arrived, it did really feel that method.


Labuan is the most effective pure harbour in Borneo. The truth is, it means “harbour” in Malay. That’s the reason individuals have been preventing over it for years. The Japanese took it throughout the second world conflict and lots of Allied troopers died making an attempt to recapture it.

This isn’t historical past to Bhullar, it’s household lore.

“My granddad, he was concerned within the Punjab Regiment … Sixty-seven of them had been despatched into Labuan to battle the Japanese all by themselves. Solely 4 survived. My granddad was one in every of them,” he defined.

His grandfather determined to remain.

Standing on the jetty in Labuan, Bhullar was at residence and relaxed. Gone was the troubled businessman we met in Kuala Lumpur.

“From a younger age, dad received us within the sea,” he defined. “He had a ship. He would ask us to leap off this wharf right here and we needed to swim all the way in which to the island up there.”

Bhullar’s marine companies enterprise was doing properly when Monfared arrived on the island. And, for some time, enterprise received even higher as Monfared tried to discover a method across the sanctions on Iranian oil.

Diplomats for Sale longread

Al Jazeera reporter Deborah Davies with Manoj and Kiran Bhullar [Kevin Hirten/Al Jazeera]

It was Bhullar who supplied him an answer. He had discovered of a small loophole, or at the least an untested space, within the regulation: If oil was saved offshore for a sure time period, it ceased to be oil from the nation of origin and have become “Malaysian” oil. And there have been no sanctions on that.

It was not lengthy earlier than Monfared and Bhullar had been working a large provide and storage operation from Labuan harbour.

“Ships would are available in from Iran … We had oil tankers parked proper outdoors right here. The mom tanker would are available in, discharge their oil onto our tankers and they might go off and we’d have oil saved all off on the bay right here,” Bhullar defined.

“Every tanker would herald … a million to 2 million barrels.”

His firm had eight storage items throughout Malaysia, the place they waited for the ships to reach so they may siphon the saved oil and sail on to China, the place it was to be bought

For a time, it labored. Bhullar did the marine logistics and Monfared dealt with the cash. Then, in 2013, Zanjani was arrested.

The operation shut down, however the Bhullars and Monfared remained shut buddies, sharing household meals and holidays.

A small-town monetary hub

To know the tangled relationships that ruined the Bhullars’ lives, it helps to know Labuan.

Initially, it’s small – about 93 sq. kilometres (36 sq. miles). The southern half of the island is essentially the most developed, with just a few high-end resorts that host oil employees and worldwide businessmen. Overlooking the harbour, within the centre of the downtown space, is a towering monetary advanced that’s residence to greater than 6,500 offshore firms.

It is a perfect location for an operator like Monfared: It’s out of the way in which, the island’s financial system is heavy on worldwide finance, oil and gasoline, it has a low tax charge and it operates below the safety supplied by Malaysia, which means that it advantages from Double Taxation Agreements – an assortment of tax exemptions – signed with 70 different international locations, in line with consulting agency Dezan Shira & Associates

It’s concurrently a monetary hub and a small city.

I stored considering why do you have to be afraid, in case you’re not responsible?

Manoj Bhullar

Labuan’s simple sense of group might clarify why Kiran discovered it so exhausting to imagine that Monfared was as much as no good. “He was very candy to everybody, he at all times referred to as me his sister,” she defined.

“He was nearer than a member of the family,” Bhullar added.

When Zanjani was arrested, Bhullar stated Monfared was scared. “I stored considering why do you have to be afraid, in case you’re not responsible?”

However because the outlines of the oil scheme and embezzlement grew to become clear to the Bhullars, they understood that their pal was in hassle.

The Commonwealth of Dominica

By the summer time of 2014, Monfared had quickly relocated to Spain. Nonetheless, the Bhullars remained near him and, in August, the 2 households holidayed collectively in Panama. It was throughout that vacation that Monfared proposed that he and Bhullar take a fast facet journey to the Commonwealth of Dominica.

“Simply earlier than touchdown on the airport, whereas we had been nonetheless within the air, that is when Ali instructed me the rationale. He has utilized below a programme to get him and his entire household citizenship.”

Dominica is an island within the Lesser Antilles – a vertical strip of jap Caribbean islands that cascades in direction of South America. It’s volcanic and wild, with steep peaks jutting dramatically out of the ocean. However missing the picture-perfect seashores of its neighbours, it struggles to draw vacationers and is likely one of the poorest international locations within the area. It is usually a kind of least touched by growth.

It may possibly take roughly 90 minutes to succeed in the nation’s capital, Roseau, from the airport. Winding by way of the slender mountain roads, Bhullar stated he was impressed by the tropical air and plush surroundings. It reminded him of residence. However, whereas he was nonetheless in vacation mode, Monfared was all enterprise, getting ready for a gathering the next morning with the nation’s Citizenship by Funding (CBI) minister.

Monfared’s objective was to safe citizenship for his household. It’s completely authorized and quite common, often costing between $200,000 and $300,000. The cash both goes to non-public tasks, like resorts, or to infrastructure. It may be an enormous income for small Caribbean islands.

Diplomats for sale map2

On the cab trip from the airport, Bhullar talked to the driving force. As a fellow islander, he recognised the issues the driving force outlined: periodic shortages of meals, water and electrical energy.

Bhullar helped prep his pal for the following day’s assembly.

“I simply instructed Ali … ‘In your assembly … what they may ask you is easy, what profit are we going to get from providing you with the citizenship?'”

Monfared urged offshore banking, however Bhullar urged him to play up fundamental island necessities, which he did.

In his assembly, Monfared floated a number of funding concepts, together with aquaculture and geothermal vitality tasks. All of this got here with the promise of robust enterprise and political ties to the Malaysian authorities.

Bhullar recalled that “Ali got here screaming again to my room at 10:30 within the morning and he stated ‘Prepare!'”

“I stated ‘Why, what’s occurring?'”

“He stated, ‘I’ve stated what you requested me to say they usually’ve requested me to clarify. I do know nothing to clarify and I’ve knowledgeable them that my enterprise accomplice … is right here, he’ll clarify to you.'”

Bhullar was speeding to dress when Monfared added that the assembly was not with ministers any extra; it was with Dominica’s prime minister, Roosevelt Skerrit.

“I went to the Caribbean in my shorts and T-shirts. I needed to borrow a shirt and pants from the entrance desk,” he stated, recalling the absurdity of the state of affairs.

Bhullar has an image of the three of them assembly within the prime minister’s workplace that day, Bhullar in an ill-fitting shirt.

Diplomats For Sale - Alireza and Skerrit 2

From left to proper: Ali Reza Monfared, Dominican Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit and Manoj Bhullar [Manoj Bhullar/Al Jazeera]

In the direction of the top of the assembly, Bhullar acquired his second shock of the day. Bhullar stated Skerrit made a suggestion, to not Monfared, however to him.

“He stated ‘Why do not you be our ambassador at massive?'”

“I stated ‘No, I am a businessman, not a politician,'” Bhullar defined.

Prime Minister Skerrit instructed Al Jazeera that he has no reminiscence of this assembly.

Again at their resort, Bhullar stated Monfared had an concept: “Persuade them that I can do the half.”

In response to Bhullar, the next morning, he and Monfared had breakfast with the CBI minister, Emmanuel Nanthan. Bhullar beneficial Monfared for the ambassador submit and Nanthan appeared glad with that, so long as it introduced much-needed funding to the island. The ultimate resolution on such issues is as much as the prime minister, nonetheless.

Issues moved shortly after that. Monfared had his conferences in Dominica on August 26, 2014. Every week later, he had registered three firms there.

On September 3, his household acquired its naturalisation paperwork and he grew to become a citizen of the Commonwealth of Dominica.

My Dominica Commerce Home

One of many first issues Monfared did when he returned to Malaysia in September 2014 was to start out a brand new firm, with the Bhullars as companions.

On the face of it, the corporate was about facilitating commerce and funding between Malaysia and Dominica. In actuality, it was about getting Monfared a diplomatic passport.

Inside a month, Dominican authorities officers had been visiting Malaysia, all bills paid. The funds had been coming from the coffers of the brand new firm, My Dominica Commerce Home.

Bhullar confirmed us a big inexperienced e book that detailed the transient however storied historical past of an organization so infamous it might someday turn into the title of a political protest calypso track. The shiny pictures inside confirmed a collection of fancy receptions for distinguished Dominican delegates, smiling and toasting with a beaming – and impeccably dressed – Monfared.

We do not use the phrase bribe … However, positively … with out that cash, Ali wouldn’t have gotten his diplomatic passport.

Manoj Bhullar

It was not lengthy earlier than Monfared purchased a property befitting his new position as a potential ambassador. The Bhullars say it was paid for by the corporate. Situated on a lake in an upscale neighbourhood of Kuala Lumpur, it might turn into Monfared’s embassy.

By mid-October 2014, Monfared had acquired his official software for a diplomatic passport and, shortly after, requests began to come back in for fee. The purpose particular person for this was Minister Nanthan.

Bhullar stated Monfared had understood that his diplomatic credentials would entail some funds to Dominica. However they shortly exceeded his expectations.

On October 29, 2014, two emails arrived with two invoices for assist with Skerrit’s upcoming election marketing campaign. One was for $85,000 to print the social gathering’s manifesto. The opposite was for $115,000 for billboards, a sound system and fireworks.

Diplomats for Sale Longread

A screenshot of the now-defunct My Dominica Commerce Home web site [Al Jazeera]

However they weren’t all campaign-related funds. In November, Nanthan requested for one more $200,000.

Bhullar was in control of arranging the funds and recalled how there was a delay to this one. “We had an issue to switch the cash into his firm’s account, which is the petrol service station in Dominica,” Bhullar stated. “It took us virtually 4 to 5 days.”

In response to emails offered to Al Jazeera, the $200,000 fee was despatched to a checking account for a service station owned by Nanthan’s household in Portsmouth, within the far north of Dominica.

Nanthan was aggravated when the cash didn’t arrive on time. In an electronic mail, he wrote: “I’m nonetheless ready on routing directions. That is taking ceaselessly. I have to say this lacks the effectivity exhibited to me by Dato Ali and his group. I’m extraordinarily disenchanted.”

“Oh, we had been getting emails, telephone messages, telephone calls. He stored, you understand, insisting … ‘when are we getting the cash?'” Bhullar recalled.

There are many photos of Nanthan within the massive inexperienced e book.

“We do not use the phrase bribe … However, positively … with out that cash, Ali wouldn’t have gotten his diplomatic passport,” Bhullar stated.

In early December, 5 months after the preliminary conferences in Dominica, Monfared acquired what he had been hoping for – a signed letter from the prime minister providing an ambassadorship.

The appointment raises questions, not solely as a result of it occurred instantly after an election he helped pay for, but additionally concerning the due diligence the Dominicans carried out as a result of by this level Monfared’s enterprise accomplice, Zanjani, had been arrested and the First Islamic Funding Financial institution, of which Monfared was the authorised signatory, had been sanctioned by the US and the EU.

Monfared despatched his “voluminous thanks and appreciation” to Skerrit, promising to “steadfastly develop the bilateral relationship and diplomatic ties between the Commonwealth of Dominica and Malaysia”.

The following step was to plan the most important social gathering but, to welcome the prime minister to Malaysia. Skerrit wished the corporate to pay for him to journey to Malaysia after which on to conferences in China by personal jet. Monfared agreed.

In March 2015, Skerrit touched down in Malaysia. No expense was spared. He was picked up from the airport in a Rolls Royce. The reception for him featured champagne, catered meals and a jazz band. It was there that Skerrit handed Monfared his diplomatic passport.

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Dominican Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit, left, and Ali Reza Monfared [Al Jazeera]

Ambassador Monfared

“After he received [his] diplomatic passport, he completely modified his angle,” Kiran stated.

“I could not name him Ali any extra,” defined Bhullar. “He’d say ‘No, you have to name me Excellency.'”

Monfared was open with Bhullar about why the diplomatic passport was so necessary to him. “He stated to me … ‘I get diplomatic immunity … I haven’t got to be frightened concerning the Iranians.'”

One evening on the My Dominica Commerce Home places of work, Monfared had his first alternative to check the facility of his diplomatic passport. The police responded to allegations of drug use at a celebration within the workplace.

Bhullar recounted how he watched as two police vans with about 20 officers in them pulled up outdoors. In response to Bhullar, Monfared hid behind a door, waving his diplomatic passport and saying: “You possibly can’t arrest me, I am a diplomat.”

Monfared - Diplomats for Sale

Ali Reza Monfared’s Dominican passport [Al Jazeera] 

“I requested them [the police] ‘What occurred? Did you discover any medicine?'” Bhullar defined. “The police stated, ‘Oh we could not go into the room. He is a diplomat … That is out of our jurisdiction.'”

Along with giving him a newfound sense of invincibility, the Bhullars stated the passport appeared to encourage all kinds of erratic behaviour.

Monfared had a lake behind his home the place Kiran stated he wished to create a chook sanctuary. She stated he ordered 1,500 geese and caged macaw parrots and different birds.

The geese, she stated, would roam by way of the neighbourhood. “Complaints stored coming in, continuous.”

Recreation over

By December 2015, Monfared’s luck was working out.

Zanjani’s trial had began and the Iranians had issued an arrest warrant for Monfared. The Malaysian authorities picked him up, however his diplomatic passport, fairly actually, received him out of jail.

“He was launched given that he was not supposed to go away the nation and his residence,” Bhullar defined.

Monfared determined to save lots of himself by betraying his pal. He bought the property – which the Bhullars say belonged to the corporate – and, utilizing his diplomatic passport, escaped to Dominica, leaving the Bhullars along with his money owed.

“It was a horrible time,” stated Kiran, explaining how her household’s status was destroyed, their financial savings worn out and her husband arrested for a time.

The police stated, ‘Oh we could not go into the room. He is a diplomat … That is out of our jurisdiction.’

Manoj Bhullar

In Dominica, Monfared shortly overstayed his welcome after his lavish life-style ran up unpaid payments. After six months, he left for the Dominican Republic, the place he hid out at a beachside resort city referred to as Boca Chica.

Again in Malaysia, the Bhullars had heard that Monfared left Dominica, however nobody knew the place to. Then, someday, Bhullar observed that Monfared’s Malaysian lawyer had posted on Fb that he had checked right into a resort within the Dominican Republic

“I despatched [a local cab driver in Boca Chica] some cash. I stated, ‘Right here you go, $200, go as much as this resort and see in case you discover a man by the title of Ali Reza Monfared, an Iranian man,'” Bhullar defined.

The cab driver confirmed that Monfared was there.

Bhullar referred to as the Iranian authorities. Shortly after, Monfared was picked up and transported to Iran.

“[It was] bittersweet,” stated Bhullar. “[But it felt] very a lot [like] justice.”